The origins of communism, depending on how broadly one defines it, stretch back as far as some of the religious and anti-monarchical political movements of the Middle Ages and post-Enlightenment Europe. But the modern ideologies of socialism and communism took form in the upper-middle intellectual classes of industrialized 19th century Europe – most notably with Karl Marx – and in the aftermath of World War I, their implementation in the ashes of the Tsar’s empire following the Russian Revolution of 1917. As Europe struggled to make sense of itself after the Great War, America was enjoying a relative boom during the Roaring 20s, and remained relatively resistant to calls for an atheistic workers’ revolution in a still deeply religious and geographically dispersed society. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, however, the appeal of the communists’ promises of work, bread, and solidarity began to spread worldwide, and the seeds for communist infiltration into American society took hold, most notably in the Roosevelt Administration and right up through the Second World War as the United States allied itself with the Soviet Union.
— Timeline —
1760 – Advances in textile manufacturing, primarily in Great Britain, led to a massive technological boom known as the First Industrial Revolution.
1818 – Karl Marx is born in Trier, Germany.
1825-1829 – Robert Owen, a Protestant Welsh industrialist, arrives in the USA and founds New Harmony, a communitarian, socialist community, in Indiana.
1841 – Charles Fourier, a Protestant French socialist, inspired American transcendentalist, Protestant urbanites, such as Nathaniel Hawthorne and Ralph Waldo Emerson, to found the Brook Farm communitarian society, which promptly failed.
1848 – The Communist Manifesto, a major work in Marxist theory authored by Karl Marx and Engels, is released to the world.
1850 – The first Socialist Turn Verein Convention is held in Philadelphia, bringing Americans from over 17 chapters across the country.
1852 – Joseph Weydemeyer, an immigrant from Germany and close friend of Marx, disseminates Marxist literature, including The Communist Manifesto, across New York City.
1857 – America’s first Communist club is founded by immigrants from Germany in New York City.
1864 – The First International, formally known as the International Workingmen’s Association, was a far-sweeping organization that aimed to bring together communists, radical anarchists, socialist labor unions, and other far-left bodies. They met and organized in London, Great Britain.
1867 – Das Kapital, the seminal work of Karl Marx, is published and subsequently released to Europe, and later North America.
1870 – More powerful advances in infrastructure and mechanical engineering, as well as later advances in basic electrical engineering, develops into the Second Industrial Revolution.
1881 – Czar Alexander the II is assassinated in unusual circumstances by far-left anarchists, some of whom are alleged to be of Jewish extraction.
1901 – President William McKinley is shot by Leon Czolgosz, a left-wing anarchist radical, inspired by, among others, Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman.
1904-1905 – The Russo-Japanese War is waged between the Russian and Japanese Empires, and utilized as an excuse for Anglo-American intervention into Russian affairs.
1912 – POTUS candidate Eugene V. Debs, running under the Socialist Party, won 900k votes, or 6% of the electorate. 160 Councilmen, 145 Aldermen, 1 Congressman, 56 mayors were all elected to respective offices under the Socialist Party.
1917 – The Russian Revolution, led by Vladimir Lenin, a Communist, topples the Russian Czarist autocracy and begins the Sovietization of the Russian Empire.
1919 – The American Communist Party is formed after splitting from the Socialist Party, primarily through the efforts of Arthur Adams.
1919 – The Palmer raids, with later help from young J. Edgar Hoover, begin across the country, physically removing Communist agitators from metropolitan areas.
1920 – Left-wing anarchists, inspired by Bolshevik propaganda, detonate bombs in the Financial District of Manhattan, killing 38 people.
1928 – Stalin initiates the first Soviet Five-Year Plan, a system of enterprise-planning that introduces a new form of command-economy to the USSR.
1932-1933 – The Holodomor crisis kills upwards of 10 million people in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Ukraine
1933 – President Roosevelt recognizes the USSR for the first time in US history
A note on Engels:
Engels was in fact born in Germany to a conspicuously Prussian family, with deep ties to Anglo-Saxon textile manufacturers in cosmopolitan Britain. Engels spoke and wrote in English, spent several years of his life (and later death) in London and Manchester, wrote extensively on the English, and both privately and publicly considered himself to be an Englishman. Furthermore, he spent several years under the tutelage of Englishmen inside of Britain, working in the textile industry and using the proceeds to ingratiate himself into the Anglo-Saxon elite, as well as directly fund Marx’s theoretical works. Thus, we consider him to be an Honorary Anglo.
— References —
– A Brief History of Socialism in America, Social Democracy Red Book (1900) – http://www.marxisthistory.org/history/usa/parties/spusa/1900/0100-sdp-briefhistorysoc.pdf
– Zionism vs. Bolshevism: a Struggle for the Soul of the Jewish People, Illustrated Sunday Herald, Churchill (1920)
– Ten Days that Shook the World, Reed (1919)
– The Road to Serfdom, Hayek (1940) – http://cnqzu.com/library/Philosophy/neoreaction/Friedrich%20August%20Hayek/Friedrich_Hayek%20-%20The_road_to_serfdom.pdf
– The Managerial Revolution, Burnham (1941)
– Animal Farm, Orwell (1945)
– The Gorsky Memo (1948) – http://www.conservapedia.com/Gorsky_memo
– The Communistic Societies of the United States, From Personal Visit and Observations, Holloway (1966)
– Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, Sutton (1974)
– The Best Enemy Money Can Buy, Sutton (1986) – https://archive.org/details/pdfy-Iqz3ytYcb3wWYJ0c
– Manufacturing Consent, Chomsky (1988)
– The Secret World of American Communism, Haynes and Klehr (1995)
– The Soviet World of American Communism, Haynes and Klehr (1998)
– Why Socialism Failed in the United States, Lipset (2000) – https://www.aei.org/publication/why-socialism-failed-in-the-united-states/
– Two Hundred Years Together, Solzhenitsyn (2003)
– Double Lives: Stalin, Willi Münzenberg and the Seduction of the Intellectuals, Koch (2004)
– The Ultracalvinist Hypothesis, Moldbug (2007) – http://unqualified-reservations.blogspot.com/2007/06/ultracalvinist-hypothesis-in.html
– New-Left Marxism and The Frankfurt School, Bowden (2008) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J92f2S3E0S8
– The Secret Behind Communism, Duke (2013)
– The Great Game, 1856-1907 – Russo-British Relations in Central and East Asia, Sergeev (2013)
– Hardcore History 48 – Prophets of Doom, Carlin (2013) – http://www.dancarlin.com/product/hardcore-history-48-prophets-of-doom/
– Communism Through the Back Door, Wise (2014) – http://communismbythebackdoor.tv/
– Wall Street’s Think Tank – The Council on Foreign Relations and the Empire of Neoliberal Geopolitics, 1976-2014, Shoup (2015)
– Ascending The Tower – Episode XVII, Part 1 – “Gaslighting Christians” (2016) – http://www.socialmatter.net/2016/08/29/ascending-tower-episode-xvii-part-1-gaslighting-christians/
– You Say America Is Not A Communist Country, Barghest (2016) – http://www.socialmatter.net/2016/08/26/say-america-not-communist-country/
– The History of America’s First Red Scare, Welton (2017) – http://www.socialmatter.net/2017/05/25/forgotten-history-americas-first-red-scare/
– The Rebbe – https://twitter.com/The_Rebbe_