In the wake of the first World War, Spain remained relatively undisturbed, having not seen any major conflict on its soil. But beneath the surface lay centuries of class and regional rivalries, and as waves of communist revolution swept Europe, labor uprisings and instability lay the groundwork for a military coup in 1923. By 1931, with pressure from the Great Depression and the urban bourgeoisie, King Alfonso XIII establishes a republic. As land and liberal cultural reforms interfere dramatically with the way of life in the still very conservative countryside and executions of reactionary forces escalate, the Spanish Civil War erupts in 1936 as General Franco leads a fascist coalition against the Republican government.
— Timeline —
1890s-1920’s: Spain starts having issues with anarchists and socialists in Catalonia, Asturias, Extremadura, Andalusia, and inside of Madrid.
1910’s – Syndicalists, primarily from France, assist in the creation of the CNT (Anarcho-Syndicalist group that centered its hierarchy and organization around particular industries); proliferation of straight anarchism continues in Catalonia and Andalusia. Catholic Union (“Confederación Nacional Católica Agraria (CONCA)”) grows in Castile, Leon, and the Basque Country. Tries to counterbalance Socialist and Anarchist
1917: Military/Union crisis unfolds with the Juntas de Defensas squaring off against the CNT, UGT, and PSOE, along with Catalan separatists. Unions were crushed and killed.
1918-1920: ‘Three years of Bolshevism’ with uprisings in Catalonia and Andalusia
1921: Eduardo Dato assassinated after string of union leaders and socialists were put down by internal police forces. Miguel Primo de Rivera appoints himself dictator of Spain after a disastrous mission in Morocco. Rivera attempts several infrastructure projects and reforms, but remains unable to make real change
Early 1930’s: Alianza Republicana is formed with San Sebastian Pact in Basque Country. Socialists, Communists, Anarchists, Liberals, Catalonian separatists, Former Monarchist Conservaitves, and military officers all conspire to create small uprisings and shocks within Spain to overthrow King Alfonso
1931: Mainline Monarchist journal had its offices set ablaze. PSOE/Liberal government begins using the Civil Guard and military against the CNT. Church and State separation underway as Spanish State moves to stop providing subsidies
1932: General Sanjujuro leads failed uprising against government
1933: Anarchists start small uprisings in Andalusian villages; immediately put down and summarily executed by the police; CEDA becomes largest party in government and the right-wing subdues the leftist political agenda.
1934: Increasing tensions between Catalonian government and Madrid results in the Catalonians losing what little autonomy they had been so far given
1936: Popular front created after head of the Comintern, Giorgi Dimitrov, insists that communists and revolutionaries of all types must align themselves with republicans, national separatists, anarchists, and liberals to defeat fascist forces in Spain; Popular Front wins most seats, starts letting out prisoners. Catalonian President goes home; Carlists begin forming Supreme Military Council was set up in Saint Jean de Luz, just over the French frontier, by Prince Javier de Borbón-Parma and Fal Conde.
July 17, 1936: Spanish Civil War begins
Late 1936-1937: both sides concentrated on building massive armies for a grueling contest
1937: bombing of Guernica in destroyed Fascist public opinion around the world.
— References —
– What is Spanish Falangism?, Evola (1937) – https://www.counter-currents.com/2010/11/what-is-spanish-falangism/
– Spanish Civil War, BBC (1983) https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLIE1hnyRw1MbD7HZNH1967ZeugokydJnS
– The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939, Beevor (2006)
– The Victorious Counterrevolution: The Nationalist Effort in the Spanish Civil War, Seidman (2011)
– The Spanish Civil War, Payne (2012)
– Remembering José Antonio Primo de Rivera: April 24, 1903–November 20, 1936, Morgan (2017) – https://www.counter-currents.com/2017/04/remembering-jose-antonio-primo-de-rivera/